All the Metals We Mined in 2021: Visualized - Visual Capitalist
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All the Metals We Mined in 2021: Visualized



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infographic showing all the metals mined in 2021

All the Metals We Mined in 2021

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“If you can’t grow it, you have to mine it” is a famous saying that encapsulates the importance of minerals and metals in the modern world.

From every building we enter to every device we use, virtually everything around us contains some amount of metal.

The above infographic visualizes all 2.8 billion tonnes of metals mined in 2021 and highlights each metal’s largest end-use using data from the United States Geological Survey ( USGS ).

Why Do We Mine So Much Iron Ore?

Iron ore accounted for 93% of the metals mined in 2021, with 2.6 billion tonnes extracted from the ground. It’s important to note that this is ore production, which is typically higher than metal production since metals are extracted and refined from ores. For example, the iron metal content of this ore is estimated at 1.6 billion tonnes.

Metal/Ore 2021 Mine Production (tonnes) % of Total
Iron ore 2,600,000,000 93.4%
Industrial metals 181,579,892 6.5%
Technology and precious metals 1,474,889 0.05%
Total 2,783,054,781 100.0%

With 98% of it converted into pig iron to make steel, iron ore is ubiquitous in our lives. Steel made from iron ore is used in construction, transportation, and household appliances, and it’s likely that you encounter something made out of it every day, especially if you live in a city.

Due to its key role in building infrastructure, iron ore is one of the most important materials supporting urbanization and economic growth.

Industrial Metals

Industrial metals are largely used in steelmaking, construction, chemical manufacturing, and as alloying agents. In 2021, the world mined over 181 million tonnes of these metals.

Industrial Metals 2021 Mine Production (tonnes) % of Total
Aluminum* 68,000,000 37.4%
Chromium 41,000,000 22.6%
Copper 21,000,000 11.6%
Manganese 20,000,000 11.0%
Zinc 13,000,000 7.2%
Titanium (mineral concentrates) 9,000,000 5.0%
Lead 4,300,000 2.4%
Nickel 2,700,000 1.5%
Zirconium Minerals (Zircon) 1,200,000 0.7%
Magnesium* 950,000 0.5%
Strontium 360,000 0.2%
Uranium 48,332 0.03%
Bismuth* 19,000 0.01%
Mercury 2,300 0.001%
Beryllium 260 0.0001%
Total 181,579,892 100.0%

*Represents refinery/smelter production.

Aluminum accounted for nearly 40% of industrial metal production in 2021. China was by far the largest aluminum producer , making up more than half of global production. The construction industry uses roughly 25% of annually produced aluminum, with 23% going into transportation.

Chromium is a lesser-known metal with a key role in making stainless steel stainless. In fact, stainless steel is usually composed of 10% to 30% of chromium, enhancing its strength and corrosion resistance.

Copper, manganese, and zinc round out the top five industrial metals mined in 2021, each with its own unique properties and roles in the economy.

Technology and Precious Metals

Technology metals include those that are commonly used in technology and devices. Compared to industrial metals, these are usually mined on a smaller scale and could see faster consumption growth as the world adopts new technologies.

Technology and Precious Metals 2021 Mine Production (tonnes) % of Total
Tin 300,000 20.3%
Molybdenum 300,000 20.3%
Rare Earth Oxides 280,000 19.0%
Cobalt 170,000 11.5%
Vanadium 110,000 7.5%
Lithium 106,000 7.2%
Tungsten 79,000 5.4%
Niobium 75,000 5.1%
Silver 24,000 1.6%
Cadmium 24,000 1.6%
Gold 3,000 0.2%
Tantalum 2,100 0.1%
Indium* 920 0.1%
Gallium 430 0.03%
Platinum Group Metals 380 0.03%
Rhenium 59 0.004%
Total 1,474,889 100.0%

*Represents refinery/smelter production.

The major use of rhenium, one of the rarest metals in terms of production, is in superalloys that are critical for engine turbine blades in aircraft and gas turbine engines. The petroleum industry uses it in rhenium-platinum catalysts to produce high-octane gasoline for vehicles.

In terms of growth, clean energy technology metals stand out. For example, lithium production has more than doubled since 2016 and is set to ride the boom in EV battery manufacturing. Over the same period, global rare earth production more than doubled, driven by the rising demand for magnets.

Indium is another interesting metal on this list. Most of it is used to make indium tin oxide, an important component of touchscreens, TV screens, and solar panels.

The Metal Mining Megatrend

The world’s material consumption has grown significantly over the last few decades, with growing economies and cities demanding more resources.

Global production of both iron ore and aluminum has more than tripled relative to the mid-1990s. Other metals, including copper and steel, have also seen significant consumption growth.

Today, economies are not only growing and urbanizing but also adopting mineral-intensive clean energy technologies, pointing towards further increases in metal production and consumption.

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Visualizing Asia’s Dominance in the Titanium Supply Chain

The global titanium supply chain is heavily dependent on Asian countries, including China. See where titanium comes from in this infographic.



titanium supply chain
The following content is sponsored by IperionX
titanium supply chain infographic

Asia’s Dominance in the Titanium Supply Chain

Titanium is a unique metal with important applications in defense, aerospace, automotives, and medicine.

But before making it into all its end uses, titanium goes through a complex supply chain that involves both geopolitical and environmental challenges.

This infographic sponsored by IperionX explores the titanium supply chain and highlights the countries that dominate it.

The Stages of Titanium Production

Titanium’s end-to-end production process typically involves five steps:

  1. Mineral extraction
    The minerals ilmenite and rutile are the primary feedstocks for titanium production. These minerals are partly composed of titanium dioxide, which is later refined into titanium metal.
  1. Sponge metal production
    Ilmenite and rutile are refined into titanium sponge using the Kroll refining process.
  2. Ingots and melted products
    Titanium sponge is melted into ingots and other melted products.
  3. Mill products
    Finished products like bars, sheets, and tubes are manufactured from ingots. This process typically generates large amounts of machining scrap.
  4. Scrap
    Scrap or waste accounts for large material losses in the supply chain. The current scrap recirculation rate is less than 70%.

The Kroll process of refining titanium minerals to produce sponge metal is an 80-year-old method that involves high energy use and carbon emissions. It’s also heavily dependent on a few countries, primarily in Asia.

The Titanium Supply Chain

The mineral ilmenite accounts for 90% of all titanium mineral consumption. The other feedstock, rutile, is only mined on a small scale.

Here’s a look at the 10 largest ilmenite and rutile producers in 2021:

Country 2021 titanium minerals production
(tonnes of titanium dioxide content)
% of Total
China 🇨🇳 3,400,000 36%
Mozambique 🇲🇿 1,108,000 12%
South Africa 🇿🇦 995,000 10%
Australia 🇦🇺 790,000 8%
Canada 🇨🇦 430,000 5%
Norway 🇳🇴 468,000 5%
Ukraine 🇺🇦 411,000 4%
Senegal 🇸🇳 491,000 5%
Madagascar 🇲🇬 414,000 4%
Kenya 🇰🇪 253,000 3%
Other 🌍 740,000 8%
Total (rounded) 9,500,000 100%

China takes up the lion’s share of titanium mineral production at 36% . It produces three times as much of the minerals as Mozambique, the second-largest producer. Meanwhile, the U.S. is grouped with other countries with just 100,000 tonnes in annual production.

Besides titanium mineral extraction, China also dominates the next stage of the supply chain with 57% of global titanium sponge production:

Country Titanium sponge production (tonnes) % of Total
China 🇨🇳 120,000 57%
Japan 🇯🇵 35,000 17%
Russia 🇷🇺 27,000 13%
Kazakhstan 🇰🇿 16,000 8%
Ukraine 🇺🇦 5,400 3%
Saudi Arabia 🇸🇦 3,700 2%
U.S.* 🇺🇸 500 0.20%
India 🇮🇳 250 0.10%
Total (rounded) 210,000 100%

*Represents production capacity for high purity specialty sponge, not available for commercial applications.

Between 2011 and 2021, China expanded its titanium sponge production capacity by 55% . Over the same period, U.S. production capacity almost declined completely, down 98% .

As a result of the lack of domestic production, the U.S. is now heavily reliant on foreign sources of titanium.

Short Supply: Titanium in the U.S.

Around 90% of U.S. titanium consumption is met by net imports, with most of it coming from Japan.

The U.S. uses titanium metal in various sectors, including defense , aerospace, electronics, and transport. With the demand for titanium projected to grow, a domestic titanium supply chain can help the U.S. become independent of imports.

IperionX is a U.S. metals technology company focused on developing the world’s first 100% recycled, low-cost, low-carbon titanium supply chain.

>>>Interested in learning more about IperionX’s titanium production technology? Click here to learn more now.

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